Review Step 2c: Characteristics & Trade-offs –

Depicting Common Access Technologies

Figure 23 depicts wired deployments alongside wireless. Wired access technologies include fibre, copper and coaxial (cable). They have the drawback of costing more to deploy per user. This makes wired access problematic in localities where user density is insufficient to reach economies of scale. Table 20 summarizes common wired technologies for last-mile deployments. For wired technologies, a barrier to rural deployment is the lack of sufficient purchasing power and low population density in some communities. Without these, it can be difficult for operating entities to cover the costs of deploying and running the network. Pole attachment issues can also make it difficult (and expensive) to deploy a network, and securing right of way for subterranean ducts is critical to underground deployments.

Figure 23: Common network deployments

Note: Excludes a number of access technologies such as satellite andDSL Sources: United States National Telecommunications and Information Administration,

Costs at-a-Glance: Fiber and Wireless Networks (May 2017)