Introduction: Definitions

Describing a Telecommunications Network

Figure 2: Telecommunications network components supporting last-mile interventions in developing countries

Source: Authors, adapted from various sources Notes: Not exhaustive, for illustrative purposes and some segments are interchangeable further, particularly in the last-mile; *In few country cases, satellite continues to be the main, or only, source of international connectivity; ** These are predominantly fibre optic links (terrestrial and undersea) but in few country cases, national backbone networks utilize wireless microwave and satellite; *** Data centers can be placed in various parts of the network, depending on the need to aggregate data (such as in core networks, or place data as close to end users as possible (such as in middle mile and last-mile networks); **** The technologies listed for the last mile are not exhaustive.